From Washington Historical Quarterly, Vol. 5 No. 4 (1914), pp. 258-287
The publication of this journal was begun in Vol. 5. No. 2 (April. 1914) of this Quarterly and has been completed in three parts instead of two as first intended; the introductory statements in the previous numbers will be of assistance to readers. For the sake of those who may not see the earlier numbers some of the annotations are repeated. The journal ends rather abruptly just before the arrival of Mr. Work at Fort Vancouver in June, 1826, almost an even year after it began with his departure from that same Fort.
This third part of the journal begins with Mr. Work in charge of the winter trade, 1825-6, at Flathead Fort or House located near the present Eddy Station of the Northern Pacific Railway in Sanders County, Montana. He remains there until February and returns to Spokane House and is on duty there with Mr. Dease, the chief trader, during the dismantling of that establishment in the spring of 1826. He then proceeded to Fort Okanogan for a short time and joins the annual "brigade" going down the Columbia river to Fort Vancouver, in June, 1826.
I have been asked to explain the meaning of the term "gummed," which is used quite often in these traders' journals. It means the smearing of the seams of the canoes or boats with pitch or gum gathered from the forest trees.
Reference has been made (note 2, p. 85) to C. McKay, as a son of Alex. McKay of the Astor party, but there appears to be doubt as to that relationship; quite likely C. McKay belonged to another family. There is also a question as to when the furs from the New Caledonia district began to come down over the Okanogan trail for shipment to Fort Vancouver; that trade route was probably opened earlier. The Thompson river (Kamloops) furs had come that way from the very beginning, in 1812.
Research as to the identity of the actual builder of the trading post called Spokane House has progressed a little farther since the beginning of this publication; meaning the original Northwest Company post and not that of the Pacific Fur Company. There are reasons to believe that Mr. Jacques Finlay built it rather than Finan McDonald, as stated in notes No. 28 and 45.
This journal furnishes the source of our information for the beginning of occupation of the trading post on Marcus Flat. above Kettle Falls, and it is well to emphasize the correct spelling of the name of that post. namely Fort Colvile; not Colville as corrupted. It took the name from one of the directors of the Hudson's Bay Company, Mr. E. Colvile.
December 1825. Thursday 15 Stormy with sharp frost in the night. Mild pleasant weather during the day. Had the men employed with Mr. Kittson opening and examining the Snake (112) furs, they are generally in good order but of a very inferior quality. they also do not answer the description given of them as many small beaver have been called large, the nums are as follows; 744 Large & 298 Small beaver and 15 otters.
Friday 16th Mild soft weather. The Kootenasy Chief paid us another visit and after trading a lodge and some Deer skins, got a small present and in the evening took his final departure for the winter. He is going with his people to hunt in their own lands not far from the fort (113) on their own river, where they intend to live on deer and endeavour to get a few beaver. On account of the snow they are apprehensive that they will not be able to go sufficiently far off to make a great hunt.-
In different conversations with the Kootanies since their arrival they express a particular wish to have a fort in their own country, and represent the communication by water much less difficult than the Indians whom Mr. Kittson saw stated it to be,(114) and say that the part which Mr. Kittson saw is the worst of it. They were told that they might depend on having an Establishment on their lands next season either by land or by water. Every means should be adopted to keep them on their own lands as they make much better hunt there than elsewhere. Their unprecedented trade this fall is to be mainly attributed to their hunting in the summer & fall on the upper waters of their own river and the Columbia.
It is out of our power to send people & supplies with them at present for want of horses, the six we have here, some of them from the Snake Country are so lean that they are totally unfit for the journey.-
Old LaBuche the F. Head chief paid us another visit.-
Saturday 17th Heavy rain in the night & the greater part of the day. The Flat Head Indians to the number of 60 to 70 arrived headed by three chiefs, they were all on horseback and came singing and firing guns with a flag flying. (115) We answered their fire with a volley of Muskets. The Chiefs & some of the principle men smoked in the gentlemens' house, & all the others in the Indian House. The weather is so very bad that we cannot well put them out and they will have to sleep through the houses the best way they can. It is too late to trade today. After dark the men arrived from below bringing letters from Mr. Dease (116) dated on the 4th & 10th inst. and five guns & 4 doz. gun worms which we requested, but no Tobacco is sent which is unfortunate as it is an article which is in great demand and of which I am apprehensive we will be short. Mr. Dease informs us that we will require to be down in time to meet the Express at the Forks about the 5th of April. Without injuring the trade we cannot reach Spokane so early as our Indians will not have arrived with their spring hunts.
Sunday 18 Sharp frost in the morning. Commenced trading with the F. Heads and by noon had traded all the articles they had for sale when a present of 20 Ball & Powder & 2 feet of Tobacco was made to each of the Chiefs and a remuneration made two of them at the request of Mr. Ogden, per note, for services rendered the Snake Expedition & assisting in bringing home the Snake furs.-Some others of the principal men got also a present of a few balls & Powder and in the afternoon they all went off apparently well pleased. On account of the bad road and weakness of the horses the greater part of the Flat Heads are not going to (hunt) the Buffalo this winter but are going to pass the winter hunting beaver. This will probably occasion a small quantity of Provisions being procured in spring than usual, but I expect it will be the means of an increase in the more valuable articles of furs.
I have not yet been able to ascertain the amount of the Trade.
Monday 19th Overcast mild weather. Had the men busily employed packing the Snake furs and also those traded here, in order to send off two canoes to the Coeur de Alan Portage (117) as soon as possible, so that the men may get the canoes back before the ice takes. Examined yesterdays trade and find it to amount to 222 Large and 107 small beaver. 1 Otter. 4 Robes, 72 Appichimons, 1 Elk Skin, 18 pack saddles. 113 fath. cords. 4 Hair Bridles, 52 Bales, 3122 lbs. dry meat, 119 fresh Tongues. 23 dry Tongues, 2 bosses & 10 « lb. castorum, which is much less than we expected. The greater part of the summer was occupied in pursuit of Buffaloes, which prevented them from hunting beaver, and as they are not going back to the Buffalo at present, they kept a considerable part of their meat to subsist on during the winter.
Some freemen paid us a visit, they were told to come tomorrow with the furs and get some supplies.-
Tuesday 20th Soft mild weather. The freemen A. Paget, C. (Loye), C. Gras Louis, J. Beauchamp & J. B. Gadwa delivered in their furs & received a little advance to enable them to pass the winter. These men would not accompany Mr. Ogden and were not to have received any supplies. but Mr. Dease directed them to get a little in case they delivered in the furs. Paget & Cadwa were unfortunate in losing a cache of 100 beaver which was stolen by the Indians. Cadwa was ordered to be sent to Spokane. He denies that his engagement was only to be free (118) as long as the Company thought proper and seemed unwilling to go, but on being told that he must comply he submitted, but with reluctance. The Indians traded a few appichimans. The men employed finishing out the packs.
Wed. 21 Cloudy cold weather. The men employed gumming & repairing the canoes. We had no gum till the Indians were employed to gather it, or the canoes would have been repaired yesterday. The Kootany chief & 6 of his men visited us, and after smoking traded a horse & a few saddles and appichimans.
Thursday 22nd Some snow in the night, cloudy cold weather. Wind N. W.
Sent off 2 canoes 5 men each to the Schachoo (119) Portage laded with the following articles for Spokan viz 27 packages containing 762 Large and 3 76 Small beaver, 11 Martens, 10 Mink. 1385 Rats, 8 Elk Skins. 12 deer Skins, 70 Appichimans, 22 Saddles & 90 Salt tongues, of the F. Heads and Kootenay returns, and 21 Pieces containing 881 Large & 381 Small beaver, 16 Otters, 2 Rats & 7 1/2 lbs. Castrum, Snake Returns, besides 1 Bale private property, rivits and 5 bales meat 60 lbs. each for the peoples voyage down and back. The above part of the Snake returns is all that was brought here by C. McKay & delivered in by the Freeman.
I wrote to Mr. Dease informing him of the state of affairs of this place and requesting 1/2 Roll Tobacco and a few awls for the trade.-I wrote for the Tobacco the last time the Canoes went down but was refused it on the plea that it was more required below. I have now urged the necessity of its being sent here where it will be much required in the Spring.-The Men are directed to make all the expedition in their power so that they may get back before they are stopped by the ice, no danger is apprehended of ice stopping them before they reach the portage. Three Men Ignace. Martin & Gadwa are ordered to start for the Fort with the letters immediately on their arrival at the portage.
Friday 23rd Cloudy cold weather. The Indians are encamping about the Fort where there are now 21 Lodges. Some are going off to the Buffalo. The Pendent Oreilles are blamed for stealing some of the Kootany horses. It is reported likewise that the Piegans have stolen 7 of the best horses from the Pendent Orellies that went first off to the Buffalo. Two Beaver Skins, the carcass of 2 deer & a few appichimans (120) were traded. One of the old Freemen, Paget, father-in-law to Cadwa, who was sent to Spokan, has come & encamped at the Fort he is an old man & having only Gadwa to depend on, he did not go off with the others. He is a very old servant and always bore a good character. After what little provisions he has will be done, he will probably become a burden on the Fort.-
Saturday 24 Cloudy cold weather. Wind N.W Some ice along the edge of the River. The Indians traded a few Appichimans and Saddles, to obtain a little ammunition as some of them are going off.
Sunday 25th Cloudy. Raw cold weather. Masses of ice running pretty thick down the River.-
This being Christmas Day the two men here had a dram, and we served out extra each a ration of fresh meat, a tongue, & a quart of Flour. For the old freeman Bastang the same.
Five Kootany Indians of the Au platte tribe (121) arrived and traded 14 Large and 4 Small beaver, 1 Otter, 17 dressed Deer Skins and 3 (parrefliches), principally for ammunition & Knives & a little Tobacco. Two Pendent Oreilles traded the carcasses of 2 sheep. females, the one weighed 62 & the other 60 lbs.
Monday 26 Overcast mild weather. the river clear of ice, except some patches along its edge. The men employed cutting firewood.
Tuesday 27 th Overcast stormy weather. Wind Northerly- The men employed assorting and bailing up meat. The Indians are still trading a few appichimans, saddles, & few furs.-
Wed 28th Cloudy cold weather. Ice running pretty thick in the River. The Men finished assorting and baling up the meat. We have now in store 67 Bales. 84 lbs. net each, viz 36 of lean, 19 Back Fat & 12 Inside Fat, or 3024 lbs. Lean Meat 1596 lbs. Back fats & 1008 lbs. Inside fats, in all 5628 lbs. Some of the Indians moving a little further down the River. but as some others are coming up in their place the number of lodges still keeps about 20. Those Indians that remain here employ the most of their time gambling.
Thursday 29th Overcast, snowed thick the afterpart of the day. Ice running in the river.
The River below will probably freeze over with this weather and prevent the Canoes from getting up.
Friday 30th Overcast mild weather, some snow. Ice running in the river but not so much as yesterday. Nothing doing in the way of trade except a chance appichiman, (parrefliches) etc. The Indians occupy the greater part of their time gambling, even where it is snowing they are playing out of doors and a group sitting about the parties engaged watching the progress of the game.
Saturday 31st Snowed thick in the night and the forepart of the day. The snow lies nearly 6 inches thick on the ground. Very little ice running in the River. The men who were sent off to Spokane on the 22nd arrived in the evening with letters from Mr. Dease and 1/2 Roll of Tobacco & 1/2 gross of awls. The men had to leave the canoes yesterday below the Chutes as the Navigation was stopped by ice. They have made a very expeditious voyage.-
Mr. Dease in one of his letters expresses a wish that Mr. Kittson or I would pay him a visit.-Nothing material has occurred at Spokane since we heard from it last.
Jan. 1826. Sunday 1 - Stormy with heavy rain the greater part of the day, the snow has nearly all disappeared. This being the first day of the new year, according to custom, each of the men got an extra ration of 6 lb. fresh venison, 2 lbs. back fat. 1 Buffalo tongue, 1 pint of Flour and 1 pint of Rum.-At daylight they ushered in the new year with a volley of musketry when they were treated with 4 glasses each of Rum cakes & a pipe of Tobacco. With this and the pint given to each of them, they soon contrived to get nearly all pretty drunk. They appeared to pass the day comfortably enjoying themselves.
An Indian brought us a female (Chiveaux), Round, Skin and all.
Monday 2nd Wind N.W. and stormy during the night and all day, but not cold, the snow has all disappeared except on the mountains. No ice driving in the River. The men doing little today. The Indians women were sent off to gather gum to repair one of the canoes to make another trip below if the weather continues favorable.-
Tuesday 3 rd Blew a perfect storm in the night, but calm overcast mild soft weather during the day.
Had part of the men repairing and gumming a canoe & making paddles, the others packing up Appechimons, dressed leather, Robes, Saddles & making in all 18 pieces or about 2/3 a canoe load, which is all in readiness to start tomorrow for the Coeur de Alene portage. I intend going myself, with 6 men, to proceed to Spokane. I expect we will reach the portage before the River freezes but we will probably have to walk back. I am induced to take this trip in consequence of Mr. Dease expressing a wish that either Mr. Kittson or I would visit him.-Mr. Kittson remains in charge of the place.-
Wed. 4 th Some frost in the night. Cloudy fine weather during the day. Left F. Head haven 20 Minutes before 8 oclock in a canoe with 8 Men, Iroquoys, reached the Chutes (122) 20 minutes past 10, Making the portage. which is 1380 yds. long, took more than 2 hours.-At 2 oclock we reached the canoes the men left a few days ago and encamped to change our canoe for a better one, the men were employed till it was dark gumming the canoes we are going to take. The canoe though not deep laden is a good deal lumbered. the saddles & appechimons take up a good deal of room. There is not much snow, a little ice along the edge of the River & on the banks. The ice that stopped the men going up is all gone.
Two parrefliches & a little meat which the men left in cache is stolen by the Indians.
Thursday 5 th Overcast soft weather. Proceeded on our journey at 1/2 past 6 oclock, reached Stony island portage at 10 & 1/2 past 10 got across it, the canoe taken down by water, by one oclock we reached the Heron Rapid, (123) the portage here also occupied half an hour, the canoe & part of the baggage got down by water. At 1/2 past 3 encamped near the Lake. A good days work. The snow is deep at the portage we passed, and also where we are encamped but it is soft and thawing.-It is difficult making the portage as the track is through rough stones & the hollows being filled up with the snow, the men with the loads tumble into the holes before they are aware.
Friday 6 th Stormy weather with heavy rain, rained hard in the night. Embarked at day light and in an hour reached the Lake (124) where we encamped and had to remain all day it being it being too rough to attempt crossing it.
Saturday 7 Stormy with rain in the night. Moderate mild weather with some rain during the clay.
Embarked at 8 oclock and reached the portage (125) at 3 in the afternoon when the goods were laid up & covered, but it being too late deferred starting for the Fort till tomorrow. Killed a small deer crossing the River.
Sunday 8 Soft weather with disagreeable sleet & snow showers. Set out an hour before day light with 4 men to cross the portage on foot for the Fort and encamped at sun setting at the little River (126) at the edge of the plains after a hard days walking. Two of the mens feet got sore and I sent them back from Rat Lake. (127) Part of the road in the middle of the woods the snow is deep & ? with the thaw but not sufficiently hard to bear ones weight, and walking through it is very fatiguing on the other parts of the road there is little snow.-Met two Indians in the afternoon & got a horse from them but having no saddle & he being very poor it was a most fatiguing job to ride any distance. We rode turn about.
Monday 9 th Soft weather Snow showers. Resumed our journey before 3 oclock in the morning and reached Spokane (128) at 1 in the afternoon, and received a cordial reception from Mr. Dease who with his people were found well. There is little snow on the ground during this day's march.
Tuesday 10 th Snowed thick the forepart of the day but soft weather & rain in the evening so that the most of the snow had disappeared by night.-
Wed 11 Overcast mild weather some light snow.
Thursday 12 th Weather as yesterday. some light snow and rain showers.
Friday 13. Sharp frost in the night but cloudy mild weather during the day. Have made preparation to return to F. Heads tomorrow.-
Sat. 14 th Snowing and raining all day. Having every thing ready left Spokane at 10 oclock for the F. Heads accompanied by my own two men, & La Bonte & an Indian with 9 horses for the baggage that I left at the other end of the Portage. On account of the very bad weather and having to go round by the Chutes (129) where we were detained some time in the plains catching two of the Inds horses, we only reached the Fountain (130) in the plain where we encamped for the night. Every one of us completely drenched to the skin.-There is very little snow on the plains.
Sunday 15 th Overcast mild weather some light snow & rain showers. Some of the horses strayed off in the night, & it was 8 oclock before they were all collected, when we proceeded on our journey and only reached the W end of Rat Lake. The snow in the woods takes the horses up over their knees so that they were able to make very little way through it. Where we are encamped, the poor horses can eat but very little. Saw the tracks of several deer and some martens.
Monday 16 th Overcast mild foggy weather. Three of the horses strayed off in the night owing to the Indian having neglected to hobble them. I sent a man & the Indian after them, while I with the other men & horses proceeded to the portage (131) where we arrived before noon, the man and Indian with the other horses did not arrive till sun setting. Had all the pieces arranged & ready to send off the horses in the morning & at the same time set out myself with the canoe. The snow is not so deep at this end of the portage as yesterday.
Tuesday 17 th Except a short Interval in the afternoon, rained without intermission all day and blowing fresh part of the day. Had the horses collected at day light and the man and Indian commenced loading them. At the same time I embarked & we proceeded up the River, and encamped a little above the lake, a good days march considering the very bad weather. Very little more wind would have prevented us from crossing the Lake. The snow has in several places disappeared but on the hills and along the shores it is still thick.
Wed. 18 th Overcast fair mild weather. Proceeded on our journey at daylight and encamped late above the Stony Island Portage. (132) The snow along the shore and particularly at the portages, was very deep.-
Thursday 19 th Weather as yesterday but colder. Continued our rout at an early hour, and encamped below the Chutes in the evening. About noon we passed the Crooked rapid after which there was very little snow to be seen. Found some Indians at the Barrier River (133) & traded some Venison from them which made us a good supper.
Friday 20 th Snowing and raining all day, very disagreeable weather. Embarked before sunrising and reached the F. Head House near dark. We were delayed some time at the Chutes gumming the canoes. Found Mr. Kittson and the people all well. Nothing material has occurred since I went off. Little done in the way of trade except of fresh provisions, some Inds. from above arrived with 14 deer which has served the people & saved dry provisions for some time back on account of the mild soft weather it is difficult to keep it from spoiling. The men have been employed getting wood for a canoe, milking troughs to (beat) meat & make pimmican, cutting cords & putting an upper flooring in the house, etc.-
Sat. 21 st Cloudy fine pleasant weather, thawing. An Indian brought the carcass of a deer.
Sunday 22 nd Mild pleasant weather.
Monday 23 rd Cloudy cold weather sharp frost in the night. Six men with some horses were sent off for canoe timber with which they returned in the evening. The road was very bad as they had to ascend the mountains.-It is difficult to procure wood for canoes here now.
Tuesday 24 th Overcast soft weather. C. McKay and six men were sent up the river in a canoe to an Indian camp in expectation that they will be able to trade some fresh provisions. It is supposed they will be two days reaching the camp. (134) If we be able to procure some venison it will save the dry provisions.-
The Old freeman Paget and a man Pierre, were sent down to Thompson's Plain with the horses where the grass is better.
Wed. 25 th Overcast soft mild weather. Two men employed dressing canoe wood, the others cutting wood.
Thursday 26 th Weather as yesterday, some light snow. The men employed as yesterday. Two Kootany Indians arrived and traded Deer skins principally for ammunition.
Friday 27 th Disagreeable cold weather blowing fresh from the Northward. The men bent the timbers for the canoe.
Sat. 28 th Soft weather some snow. Had the provisions examined, a little of it was moldy, put 5 bales on the loft to dry to beat for pimican.
Sunday 29 th Raw cold overcast weather. C. McKay and the men who went off on Tuesday returned. The River is so shallow above that they could not get the canoe to the Indians camp but two men were sent. The Indians have had no provisions and the people were starving when they got a little. Only about two animals are brought home. They brought home the skin of a ram, horns and all, for stuffing.
Monday 30 th Snowed in the night and snowing thick the greater part of the day. Men differently employed.
Tuesday 31. Snowing part of the day. but soft weather & thawing. There is now nearly a foot deep of snow. The men employed cutting and melting down tallow.
Wed. 1 Feb. 1826 Overcast soft weather. Some sleet and rain showers. Part of the men employed cutting and melting Tallow, & part, pounding meat to make pimican.-
Thursday 2. Sharp frost in the night, and cloudy cold weather during the day. The men employed as yesterday.
Friday 3. Frost in the night. Overcast soft weather thawing during the day. Blowing strong in the evening. The men employed as yesterday except those that were pounding the meat, who are making a trough as the one already made is broken. Some Indians arrived from above & traded the carcasses of 2 deer & the skin of a (bison). The meat is a seasonable supply as our stock of fresh meat was nearly out.
Saturday 4. Some snow in the night but clear mild weather during the day.
Had the men employed melting down fat. Yesterday evening. I gave one of the men Togonche, a boxing for making too free with my wife (135) but being in a passion he got out of my hands before he got enough & to avoid getting another which I promised him he ran off to the woods.
Sunday 5. Clear mild weather.
Monday 6 th Snowed hard in the night and snowing part of the day. Part of the men employed pounding meat and part, dressing canoe timber.
Tuesday 7 th Stormy in the night with very heavy rain, rain & snow the greater part of the day. Part of the men employed melting fat the others at the canoe timber.
T. Toganche came to the fort in the night and took away his things, and the other provisions, the others deny that they knew of his going off or where he is gone too. I believe they are telling lies.
Wed. 8 th Rain in the night & rain & snow during the day. The men employed as yesterday. Nothing doing in the way of trade except a little gum.-
Thursday 9 th Rain & very stormy in the night, mild weather during the day.-The snow is disappearing very fast, there is no very little on the ground.
The men employed at the canoe, the wood is all dressed.
Monday 13 th Sharp frost in the night. Cloudy cold weather during the day. Four men employed at the canoe & two pounding meat. An Indian arrived from Spokane, with letters dated on the 3rd Inst. Mr. Dease sends me orders to proceed to Spokane to make out the a/c & leave Mr. Kittson in charge of this place. As I have a particular wish to see the years transactions of this Post finished so that I might be able to make some observations on it, that perhaps might have been useful, I certainly do not like the trip, and think Mr. Dease (136) might have made more Judicious arrangements, especially when It is only to make out the Accounts.
Tuesday 14 th Sharp frost in the night & very cold all day. The men employed as yesterday, finished pounding the meat and are now ready to make it into Pimican to take below to Spokane.
Wed. 15 th Keen frost in the night, and cold freezing weather all day. The river driving full of ice, which is an unusual thing at this season of the year. Two of the men employed repairing a canoe to below to the Le Portage if the River keeps open. Five more men making Pimmican. They made 14 bags 80 Is. each.
Five of the Au Platte Indians arrived late last night, & today traded 2 Otter, about 500 Rats, and some dressed leather and (Parrefliches). (137)
Thursday. 16 Cold frosty weather but milder than yesterday. A good deal of ice driving in the River.
Two men employed repairing a canoe to go below.-The others at the Pimican, Made 6 more bags & filled 2 bags of Tallow 90 lb. each.
A Flat Head Indian arrived for a little tobacco for his tribe who are now on their way coming in, but still far off. Several are daily arriving from different quarters principally from the Fd. H. Lake and encamping about the fort, they bring nothing except a little dry Venison.-
Friday 17 Overcast freezing weather. Some ice still driving in the River & ice fast along its edges. The water is rising considerably some days past.
Three men employed repairing the canoe.-The others tying up the Pimican & making packs of cords, to go below & doing other jobs about the fort.-
The Flat Head Indian that arrived yesterday went off. He got a little Tobacco for each of the principle men. He made us to understand that his tribe were still in pursuit of buffalo but would soon come off for the fort. They were likely to have a good deal of provisions but he could not say what success they had in the fur way. A band of 13 Kootanies principally Auplattes arrived in the evening with some furs.-It was too late to trade.
Saturday 18 Cloudy mild weather, frost in the night. Ice still driving in the River.
The Kootanies that arrived last night, traded 19 Beaver large & small, 1 Otter, 5 martens & 1 fish, 210 Rats, 4 Elk skins, 114 dressed & 5 parchment Deerskins and some (parrefliches), principally for ammunition.-
Part of the men employed at the new canoe, and three finishing repairing the one they were at these two days past. It is now ready and I intended to start tomorrow for Spokane with a load of provisions but the people arriving from the horse guard (138) informed me that part of the River there is frozen over and of course, impassable. A piece of the River above the fort has also been fast some days. In order to ascertain exactly the state of the River below so that we might be able to ascertain whether a passage is practicable or when it is likely to be so, C. McKay & Canotte, who is a good judge of the River, were dispatched to take a view of the water below at different places from which they will be able to judge of the state of the River farther down, they are to be back tomorrow, so that I must defer starting for another day. As Mr. Dease wants two men down also by taking a canoe & cargo down at present is the only means by which they can be spared.
The canoe is also the most expeditious mode of conveyance. We cannot attempt taking down the horses as Mr. Dease suggests, without running the risk of making a very tedious journey and perhaps losing some of the horses, on account of the great depth of the snow along parts of the road.-The journey on foot must also be, tedious.-Performing the journey, in the canoe is decidedly preferable, as it can be done much quicker, & the cargo can be taken down at once & probably, not more than three canoes will require to be taken down in the Spring. So that the men wanted below can now be spared which they otherwise could not.
Sunday 19 th Cloudy mild weather. Some ice still driving in the River. C. McKay & Conotte returned & reported that the River is frozen in 4 places where, Portages will have to be made, not very long ones, & that only one place farther down is likely to be frozen at the Cobias. I therefore have determined on starting tomorrow, it will require longer time but it is the only means we now have of performing the journey. From all that we can learn there is too much snow for the horses to be sent down with safety.
Monday 20 Left the Flat Heads early, in a canoe with 7 men & an Indian and 22 pieces Pimican & fat. 1 box candles & my baggage, besides provisions for the voyage, in all about 27 pieces. A little below the Fort we were stopped by ice & had to make a portage at least 3/4 of a mile, after which we proceeded to the Chutes, made the Portage & a little farther down the River was again frozen over & we had to make another portage about the same length as the last, but over a much worse road. The ice is too weak to carry upon it & it is difficult to get ashore and a bad road along shore. If we find obstructions of this kind tomorrow the canoe will probably have to be sent back & I will have to proceed on foot, as it would occupy a long time to carry over some of the portages below.-Very disagreeable weather. Snow & sleet heavy in the evening so that it wets everything.
Tuesday 21 Cloudy overcast weather. drizzling rain, sleet & snow the greater part of the day.
Proceeded down the river at an early hour & again soon found our road barred with ice in two places of considerable length, it was, however, so soft that we got our way broken through it with a great deal of labor & damage to our canoe. We crossed the Stony island portage & encamped below it at a late hour. In the forepart of the day there (was) little snow along the River but towards evening it was very deep. At our camp it is not less than three feet. In the morning when I was away with the foreman examining the ice one of the men (Bonufont) deserted and ran off with my old gun and Powder horn. The others said they thought I had sent him for them, This man is almost out of his senses about our peril at the F. Heads which is probably the cause of his running off-I had no idea that he ran off entirely or I certainly would have pursued him with the people & caught him although it would be difficult to find him as there is little snow in the woods and we had no time to spare.-He will probably go no farther that the fort where Mr. Kittson will stop him.
Wed. 22 Snow & rain the most of the day. We were detained some time in the morning gumming the canoe after which we continued our route & encamped in the evening near the lower end of Pendent Oreilles Lake. We just got across the lake in good time as it began to blow immediately afterwards. We met no more obstructions from the ice, but in several places it had very recently broke up.
Thursday 23 rd Very disagreeable cold weather, thick snow & sleet all day. Embarked at an early hour & reached the portage at noon, where we got the property all safely laid up & the canoe gummed for me to return with her tomorrow morning while I start with one man & an Indian to the fort & leave one man to take care of the property, till people & horses come for it.-I am afraid the horses will have a bad job of it as the snow here is very deep. The ice in different parts of the river has not been long broke up. Passed two Indian camps and lodges and loaded 3 pr. of small snow shoes from them.-The badness of the weather prevented me from setting out for the fort immediately.
Friday 24 th Overcast, Cloudy weather, snow showers. At daylight set out for Spokane accompanied by an Iroquoy & an Indian, and encamped at 4 oclock in the afternoon between the big hill and the Lake. The snow on the portage is generally from 3 to 4 feet deep and very soft and on account of the smallness and badness of our snowshoes walking through it is very fatiguing, when we encamped we were very tired, & had no water, however, by melting snow on a piece of bark at the fire we soon obtained a sufficiency.-We stopped early having only a small axe to cut firewood.
I am afraid, there is so much snow, it will be a bad job getting the property across.
Saturday 25 Overcast, snow and sleet the greater part of the day. Proceeded on our route at daylight and reached the plain at 11 oclock and encamped at sunsetting at Campment de Bindash, with J. Finlay's (139) sons who were hunting fortunately we fell in with them or we would have had little fire during the night.
The snow continued the same depth to near the edge of the woods where it was not so deep. There was not much snow on the plains and on the South end we walked without snowshoes.-
Sunday 26 Clear cold weather in the night and mild weather during the day.
Continued our journey at 3 oclock in the morning and arrived at Spokane at 11. Not much snow in the woods & it was so hard that we walked the most of the way without snowshoes. We were well tired. There were some horses on the opposite side of (Schuihoo) (140) plain but we thought it too far to go for them yesterday evening. Found Mr. Dease & his people all well.
Monday 27 Snowed in the night and the greater part of the day.
It being deemed impracticable to get the property across the portage at present on account of the depth of the snow, without, the risk of losing some of the horses, Mr. Dease had determined to let it remain some time fill the snow thaws.-But a man (Chilifaux) was sent off to give the man who was left behind instructions & leave an Indian with him and at the same time to bring home some of my things, particularly the box containing the papers.-The Indians would not trust their horses to cross the portage.-
Tuesday 28 Cloudy mild weather, some snow. A good deal of the snow that fell yesterday thawed.
Wed. 1 Overcast mild weather. The snow thawing Mr. Birnie (141) I & the men busy packing beaver these two days.
Thursday 2 Overcast cold weather. The people still employed packing furs.
Friday 3 rd Overcast cold weather, the snow thawing a little about the Fort but diminishing very little in the woods.
Saturday 4 Weather as yesterday. Keen frost in the night.
Sunday 5 Cloudy mild weather in the middle of the day, but cold in the night morning & evening. Snow diminishing very slowly. The men finished packing the furs. I am employed arranging the accounts.
Monday 6 th (Monday, Sunday & Tuesday here given in exact order of original M. S. )
Keen frost in the night. Cloudy cold weather during the day. The Chiefs we spoke to about horses to carry off part of the furs and property to the Forks, (142) they engaged to furnish 80 horses.
Sunday 7 Clear fine weather but cold & the snow wasting very little.
Tuesday 7 th Cloudy cold weather keen frost in the night.
The men busy tying up the pieces & preparing to go off tomorrow. The Indians collecting the horses.-
Mr. Birnie with 3 men, 13 Indians and 80 loaded horses set out for the forks the first trip. Mr. B. is to remain in charge of the furs & property. Only 4 or 6 pieces of this is private property.
Tuesday 7 th In the evening Cholefaux arrived with my trunk & blankets about 100 lb.-The other things he left.-The snow on the Portage is now very deep, more so than when I passed it is now not less than 4 feet. There is no knowing when horses may be able to pass through it.
The night before Cholefaux arrived at the other end of the Portage some Inds slept there with the man who was left in charge of the goods, & stole a small bag 25 lb. fine pimican.-
Wed 8 Cloudy cold weather, sharp frost in the night. Chalifaux was sent off to the Forks to remain with Mr. Birnie.
Thursday 9 th Sharp frost in the night. Cold bleak weather during the day.-The snow wasting very little to be this season of the year.-
Friday 10 Keen frost in the night. Raw cold weather. Snow in the afterpart of the day.
The men, employed with two Indians pressing the fur packs, but had to give it up on account of the snow.
Saturday 11 th Froze keen in the night. Light clouds fine weather though cold during the day.
The People above mentioned employed Pressing the furs which was finished in the evening having done 36 packs in the day. In the evening an Indian with part of the horses that went off to the Forks on Tuesday, arrived. The whole reached their destination safe, & the property all in good order, having had dry weather.
Sunday 12 Frost in the night, cloudy cold weather during day. All the rest of the horses & Indians & men returned from the Forks.
Monday 13 Keen frost in the night. The men employed tying up and arranging the pieces for the next trip. Busy all day paying the Indians for their horses for their last trip.
Tuesday 14 Frost in the night, light. cloudy, cold weather during the day.
The snow is disappearing about the Fort, but going off very slowly.
Wed 15 Cloudy cold weather. The men employed cutting firewood.
Thursday 16 Heavy rain in the night some time In the morning, which has diminished the snow considerably, the valley round the fort is nearly all bare except patches here and there but in the woods and higher ground snow still lies pretty thick & is wasting very tardily. Mild, soft foggy weather, & the first spring like day we have had this season. The men employed cutting firewood in the forepart of the day, afterwards arranging and separating the furs & property to be sent off to the forks on Saturday, in all 60 loads. The Indians were engaged to furnish sixty horses on that day, for the trip.
Pere de Joile Fille was also engaged to cross the (Schuihoo) portage for the property that remains there, he is to go as soon as the road is passable through the snow, which he expects will be in two or three days.
Friday 17 Raw cold weather in the morning, mild afterwards. Had provisions &c., tied up for the party going off tomorrow. The Indians collecting their horses.-
Saturday 18 th Cloudy, snow & sleet the forepart of the day, snowed in the night. the snow in the morning was nearly 2 inches deep, but it had nearly all disappeared during the day, on the low ground, but on the high ground that faces the north, the snow still remains.
On account of the bad weather the departure of the horses with the property was deferred until tomorrow.
The water in the river has risen considerably, these few days past.
Sunday 19 Frost in the night & fine weather in the forepart of the day but disagreeable weather with rain and sleet afterwards.
Three men and ten Indians, with the Interpreter Rivit, (143) were sent off to the Forks with 62 horses loaded with Furs, Provisions & Sundries. The after part of the day turned out very unfavorable which was not expected in the morning as the weather was fine. There is very little property of any kind now remaining. (144) -The women and children also went off today.-
Monday 20 Overcast fair weather in the morning some light showers during the day.
Tuesday 21 Rain and sleet in the night, but fair weather during the day. The River continues much the same, the water is rising very little.
The Blacksmith & cook, the only two men we have now here, employed collecting all the iron about the place, stripping hinges off doors (145) &c. The Indians much regret our going off.. and frequently complain that they will be pitiful when the whites leave them.
The Indians are getting a few trout and suckers in their barrier, a part of which they give us.
Wed. 22 Light showers. The men employed as yesterday.
Thursday 23. Sleet & rain showers, rained hard in the night. The greater part of the Men and Indians that went to the Forks on Sunday last, returned. Not withstanding the bad weather their property got down safe.
Friday 24 Showery weather and cold, notwithstanding the advanced season the snow still lies on the North side of the hills and banks. The rest of the people arrived from the Forks. Late last night two Indians arrived from Coeur de Alan Portage with letters from Mr. Kittson dated F. Head 9 th Inst. The trade was then completed and preparations making to start. The provision trade has been excellent but the returns in furs less than was expected.-War has broken out between the F. Heads and (Piegans.)C McKay is at the other end of the Portage with the horses that were at the F. Heads, he had a bad journey down on account of the depth of the snow, the horses were five nights without eating. The snow on the portage is still near 3 feet deep.-Mr. Kittson was to have proceeded to the Pendent Oreilles Bay but as it is supposed from accounts that that portage is impassable with the depth of the snow, a man was sent off immediately with letters to Mr. Kittson to stop him at the Coeur de Alan portage.-
Some people were sent off to fetch home our horses from the Coeur de Alan plain to be ready to start for the F. Head property. Le Course caulking his boats.-Paid off part of the Indians for their trip to the Forks.-
Saturday 25 Raining the greater part of the day. The horses were brought to (Birnie's) (146) plains. of the Indians for their horses.
Sunday 26 th Rain in the night and the most of the day. The water in the River rising considerably these few days.-Some snow still lies on the banks and hills that face the North.
Monday 27 Overcast weather. Martin arrived from Coeur 'de Alan Portage, in place of Charles who went off on the 23 rd who was so fatigued that he could not come back. Martin can also scarcely walk, though he came part of the way on horseback. Mr. Kittson had not arrived at the Portage 2 days ago. By Indian report he had started from the F. Heads but was detained at Thompsons plains, seeking after one of his men (Benifont) who had deserted. There is still a great deal of snow on the Portage. Some places it is said to be 3 feet deep. The horses were brought home. & the Indians engaged to furnish some more, to go off for the F. Head property tomorrow, as Mr. Kittson is expected to have arrived by the time they reach the Portage. Tuesday 28 Overcast mild weather. Rivit, 2 men & some Indians went off to meet Mr. Kittson with about 70 horses.
Wed. 29th. Fine weather, sharp frost in the night. Old Philip was sent off to the Forks to send home Chalifaux who is there.-
Thursday 30 th Fine weather, but keen frost in the night. La Course busily employed caulking and gumming the boats.
Friday 31 st Frost in the night, Overcast mild weather during the day. Not withstanding the weather is rather cold, Vegetation is making considerable progress. The ground about the fort is getting quite green, and the bushes are putting forth their leaves and some small plants flowering. The snow, nevertheless still keeps possession of the banks that Front the north.-The River has risen considerably for some days past. The Indians are hungry as they have little to depend upon but moss. They have for some time past got a good many trout from the Barrier but last night it was broken by the height of the water, & they will not be able to repair it.
Sat. 1 Heavy rain the greater part of the day. The men employed gumming the boats.
Sunday 2 Overcast mild, soft weather. Mr. Kittson arrived from the F. Heads. he left his people yesterday. One of the men (Bonenfant) who deserted from me on the 21 st Feb but was afterwards secured, ran off a second time, when Mr. Kittson sent two men in pursuit of him. One of these Ignace (Astaryan), also stayed away & is supposed to have deserted also. Bonenfant made his escape from an Indian lodge before the men got up. Three of the canoes were broke, two of the them sunk, & though none of the property was lost a great deal of it was wet, & though pains were taken to dry it, it is feared from the witness of the weather that a deal of the meat will be much damaged.-
Monday 3 rd Overcast fair weather. C. McKay & Canotte arrived & left Rivit and the Men this morning. they are to stop the most of the day opening and airing the provisions.
Tuesday 4 Overcast, weather drizzling rain. The men employed tying up some things that were loose in the Store.
Wed. 5 Overcast fair weather. The people with horses loaded with Flat head returns arrived. The men immediately employed opening and examining the provisions. A good deal of it is wet & getting moldy. Some of the bales of leather were also wet, indeed scarcely anything in the canoes missed. Busy the after part of the day settling with the Indians for their horses.
Thursday 6 th Fine weather. Busy settling with the Indians & paid them up for all their horse hire & services for so far. Mr. Kittson & the men drying and packing up the meat.
Friday 7 th Fair weather. Had the Indians & Company's horses collected and the property taken to below the Forks, (147) in the boat. the river being too high to cross it on the horses. At past noon I set out with 59 loaded horses and encamped late at the Kettle encampment. (148) Our loads are principally provisions, a few packs of furs & leather. All Indians but one white man that are with the horses, they are very careful of the property.
Saturday 8 th Clear pleasant weather. It was some time in the morning before the horses were all collected after which they were all loaded and proceeded on the rout. Mr. Dease and Mr. Kittson shortly come up with us. I accompanied them & we proceeded on ahead and arrived at the Forks in the evening. We had some difficulty crossing a small river (149) that was swelled by the snow melting in the mountains, the current was very strong & the water deep. My horse was carried a considerable distance down the stream. I was completely wet up to the middle it was with difficulty I kept his back as he was different times nearly upsetting by getting on branches or trees.
Sunday 9 th Clear fine weather. The boats, three (150) in number, which left Spokane yesterday arrived at the Forks this evening, they loaded the cargoes above the little Dalles & the light boats were run down. La Courses boat struck a stone near the mouth of the Spokane river in a dangerous rapid and was broken. She was very nearly upset, had she done so everyone on board would have perished. Yesterday the boats fell in with the horses & transported all the property past the little river.
Monday 10 Cloudy weather, sun shining occasionally. The horses and property all arrived at the Forks safe in the morning where the loads were received. The Bales of meat were opened to be aired. several of them were a little wet.-Busily employed in the afterpart of the day paying off the Indians for the lend of their horses and their own labour coming to the Forks.-
Tuesday 11 Cloudy weather. The meat was again all opened & spread out to air. The Express arrived in the evening, Messrs. McLeod (151) , Ermatinger & Douglas.-They brought 3 pigs & 3 young cows for Fort, Colvile. (152)
Wed. 12 Mr. A. McDonald (153) arrived from Okanagan by land.
Thurs. 13. Two boats sent off to Okanagan landed with furs.-And afterwards 20 of the Spokane horses for the same place to go on to Kamloops to meet the New Caledona people.-Rivit, Old Philip & old Paget & Pierre with a number of women and children & all the horses & the young cows, were sent off to Kettle falls. They have a quantity of seed potatoes with them & tools to commence farming immediately. (154)
Friday 14 th Nothing particular, all busy finishing the account.
Sunday 16. The Express for the Mountains. Mr. McLeod & Mr. Birnie, set off in the evening.-One boat 8 men.
Monday 17 A cargo was prepared for a boat to Okanagan.
Tuesday 18 A boat loaded with Packs of furs, appichimons, leather &c. Messrs. McDonald, Ermatinger & myself passengers, Set out in the morning for Okanagan.-
Wed. 19 th Arrived at Okanagan in the morning with all safe. Met the man that left the forks on the 12th returning yesterday morning. They would reach the forks in the course of the day.-
Thursday 20 Overcast mild weather. Messrs. A McDonald. E. Ermatinger and Annance, (155) 12 Men and 2 Indians took their departure for Nezperces & thence to Fort Vancouver in a boat, with 12 Packs furs, 15 bales salmon, 4 Bales Appichimons, 1 bale Saddles, 1 Bale leather, 1 Bale Cords & 3 (caffetes). They are to proceed from Walla Walla by land with horses.
I remain in charge of Okanagan till the Brigade goes down. Five men remain with me, two of whom are shortly to go off to Kamloops with horses to meet the N. Caledonia people, and two of them are invalids.-
(No journal kept from Apr. 21 to May 31 inclusive, unless in separate book.)
Thur. 1 st Cloudy fair weather. The men employed gumming the boats.-Yesterday I gave up the charge of the store &c. to Mr. F. Ermatinger (156) who is to remain at this place during summer.-
Friday 2 nd Fair weather. Men employed as yesterday. Mr. Connolly (157) arrived about 5 o'clock in the evening. He left his people this morning, they are expected to arrive with the horses tomorrow.
Sat 3 Cloudy, Showery weather. Mr. Connolly's people under the charge of Messrs. Pambin (158) & Douglas (159) arrived late in the evening, 60 loaded horses 85 packs furs & 6 Kegs Castorum. They have been 25 days from Alexander 10 of which were from Kamloops to Okanagan.
Sunday 4 th Cloudy mild weather. An Indian traded a salmon.
Monday 5 th Cloudy, Showery weather.
Tuesday 6 th Sultry warm weather, some showers. Mr. Connolly being very anxious for the arrival of Mr. Dease's people, and apprehensive that letters which he sent some time ago had not reached their destination. An Indian and a man were dispatched with letters to Fort Colville. About 1 oclock 2 boats & 11 men with Mr. Douglas (160) & Kittson arrived from Ft. Colvile, with some appichimons, cords, provisions, &c.-The sending off in the morning is unnecessary. Everything made ready to start tomorrow.
Wed. 7 th Cloudy Sultry weather. Departed from Okanogan with 6 boats, men loaded with pack furs & other baggage. (161) All under the charge of Mr. Conolly, Messrs. J. Douglas, Pambin., Kittson, D. Douglas, & myself passengers. Started at 8 oclock & encamped to gum the boats at 6 a little above Priests Rapid. Saw but few Indians on the River, traded some roasted salmon.-The current is very strong & the water high.
Thursday 8 th Cloudy, showery weather. Continued our journey at 3 oclock and arrived at Nez Perces (162) at 7 in the afternoon. A few Indians along the river. Traded 6 fresh salmon.-
Friday 9 th Cloudy weather, excessively warm in the middle of the day. In consequence of the rain yesterday evening, the boat and additional cargoes to be taken from Nez Perces could not be arranged. Some time was, therefore, occupied doing that business this morning. Near noon the boats all started 8 in number with 45 packs furs in addition to those brought from Ok: and some other property. Messrs. D. Douglas & Kittson remained.-Our party now consists of 8 boats. 51 men, & 1. C. F. & 3 clerks.-We got on well during the day.-Shortly after leaving Nez Perces at Grand Rapid (163) we met an Indian with dispatches from Ft. Vancouver dated 3rd Inst., announcing the Arrival of the Ship. Encamped in the evening below J. Day's River. A good many Indians along the river. Mr. Black gave the people a horse to eat.
Sat. 10 Cloudy fine weather, very warm though there was a little breeze of wind. Proceeded on our journey at daylight. Passed the portage at the Chutes (164) and to near the lower end of the Dalles where we encamped to get the boats gummed.-The men had a hard days labor carrying across the two portages.-There were about 100 Indians at the Chutes, & from 200 to 300 at the Dalles. They are very peaceable. Traded salmon from them to serve the people 2 days.-
Sunday 11 Cloudy, Blowing fresh part of the day. All hands were in motion at daylight, and after proceeding down a small channel & making a portage at its lower end, (165) continued our rout, but it blew so fresh that we had to put ashore before noon and could not proceed during the day. The Indians were very quiet during the night, but before they could be all sent off from the camp they made a hole in the sand under the edge of one of the boats & stole a capot from under one of the mens heads when he was sleeping. There was some trouble getting through the rapids and whirlpools below the Dalles. Traded some more salmon.-
Monday 12 Continued blowing fresh all night and all day. Storming in the afternoon. It being a little moderate we embarked at daylight, but had proceeded only a few hours when the wind reversed so that we had to put ashore & remain all day a little below Cape Heron. (166) Some Indians visited us from whom part of a sturgeon was purchased & some other little things. A canoe of Indians on their way from the fort below visited us. Two Indians who had solicited a passage from the Dalles to Fort Vancouver returned in the afternoon. One of them had the misfortune to lose his gun. It was lying in the oil cloth which being blown up by the wind tossed the gun overboard.
112. That is, the furs sent from the Snake river country where Peter Skene Ogden's party had been trapping during the winter and summer of 1825.
113. The trading post known as Fort Kootenay had been located nearly opposite the present town of Jennings, Montana, but was not being maintained this year.
114. This refers to attempt of Mr. Kittson to ascend the Kootenay river from the Columbia in a batteau , mentioned on pages 178-9 of this quarterly.
115. See note 108 on page 189.
116. Mr. John Warren Dease, Chief Trader, in charge at Spokane House during this winter.
117. The Portage mentioned in note 86, page 179 of this quarterly.
118. Free trappers nominally their horses, guns, traps , and lodges, but were usually in debt to the Company for everything and obliged to turn in their furs to pay the indebtedness. The regularly employed servants were called the engages.
119. The same as the Coeur d' Alene portage mentioned in note 117, this being Mr. Work's spelling of "Skeetshoo," the name given by David Thompson to the Coeur d' Alene lake and river Indians.
120. Saddle Blankets, made of skins.
121. The Indians residing along the lower Kootenay river; see note 104 on page 187.
122. Thompson Falls, Clark's Fork River, Montana.
123. The name still remains and is said to have its origin from numerous small fish resembling herring that were common there.
124. Pend d'Oreille lake
125. North end of Skeetshoo Road and in later years called Sineacateen Crossing.
126. Rathdrum creek, probably.
127. Hoodoo lake, Kootenay County, Idaho.
128. Spokane House at forks of Little Spokane and Spokane rivers.
129. Spokane Falls
130. Some large spring on Spokane prairie where Antoine Plante afterward lived.
131. Sinacateen again
132. Previously mentioned as Isle d'Pierre and impossible to locate with certainty; possibly Cabinet rapids, Clark Fork river.
133. Possibly the Trout creek, Montana; on main line of No. Pae. Ry.
134. The large camp of the Flatheads near the lake of that name.
135. Mrs. Work was of Spokane blood and a very intelligent woman.
136. Mr. Dease was suffering from some chronic disease from which he died a few years after at Fort Colville
137. Saddle Bags
138. Herders at Thompson's Prairie, where the horses were pastured.
139. Jacques Finlay, clerk of David Thompson, who was in charge of Spokane House in 1811, and after whom Jocko creek, Missoula County, Montana is named.
140. Another attempt to spell the word Skeetshoo.
141. See note 79, page 176. Mr. Birnie came to the Columbia in about 1820.
142. The mouth of the Spokane river where the boats were loaded to proceed either up or down the Columbia.
143. See note 68, page 167.
144. Mr. Work and Mr. Dease remain until the arrival of Mr. Kittson with the furs and provisions from the Flathead trading post.
145. This marks the end of Spokane House as a trading post. For glimpse of this place in July, 1826, consult David Douglas' account in Oregon Hist. Quarterly, Vol. 5
146. Evidently some prairie near the house, possibly the Five Mile Prairie of present day.
147. Meaning of the Forks of Spokane and Little Spokane rivers about three-fourths mile below the house, where the ford usually was. See map in Pacific Railway Reports, Volume 12.
148. Uncertain but probably where the main trail Walla Walla to Kettle Falls crosses the Spokane river.
149. One of several creeks entering Spokane river from the south. The road from Spokane House to the Forks evidently followed the south side of Spokane river very closely.
150. The boats had been built at Spokane House during the winter; the Little Dalles are the gorge at Miles, Lincoln County, Wash.
151. John McCleod, a chief trader, an his way to cross the Rocky Mts. Francis Ermatinger, a clerk, and Douglas, the botanist from England. For contemporaneous mention of this meeting, consult pp. 334-5 of Vol. 5 of Oregon Hist. Quarterly, being Journal of David Douglas.
152. This marks the beginning of the pork, beef, and dairy business in Steven's county, Washington, in particular, and all the Inland Empire in general.
153. Archibald McDonald, then a clerk; the father of Ranald McDonald.
154. These people are to become the first residents at Fort Colvile then being completed on Marcus Flat above Kettle Falls.
155. Mr. Annance, Chief Trader, had been in charge of Fort Okanogan that winter and Mr. Edward Ermatinger had probably been at Thompson river.
156. See note page 176
157. Chief Factor William Connolly from Fort St. James in New Caledonia en route for Ft Vancouver to exchange his furs for trading goods.
158. Pierre Chrysologue Pambrun, a clerk under Mr. Connolly, afterward in charge of Fort Walla Walla consult Irving Capt. Bonneville.
159. James Douglas, clerk under Mr. Connolly, whose daughter he married, and afterward Sir James Douglas, Chief Factor and Governor of British Columbia.
160. David Douglas, the botanist, again.
161. Constituting what was known as a fur brigade.
162. Fort Nez Perce or Walla Walla; Mr. Samuel Black then in charge.
163. Umatilla rapids.
164. Celilio Falls and the Upper and Lower Dalles, now charted as Ten and Five Mile Rapids.
165. Three Mile Rapids.
166. Upper Cape Horn. See note 6.